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Ritter, C., Lee, J.-Y., Pham, M.-T., Pabba, M. K., Cardoso, M. C., Bartenschlager, R. and Rohr, K. (2024). Multi-detector fusion and bayesian smoothing for tracking viral and chromatin structures. Med. Image Anal. 97: 103227.


Pabba, M. K., Meyer, J., Celikay, K., Schermelleh, L., Rohr, K. anµd Cardoso, M. C. (2024). DNA choreography: correlating mobility and organization of DNA across different resolutions from loops to chromosomes. Histochem. Cell Biol.: doi.org/10.1007/s00418-024-02285-x.

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Pradhan, S. K. , Lozoya, T., Prorok, P., Yuan, Y., Lehmkuhl. A., Zhang, P. and Cardoso, M. C. (2024). Developmental changes in genome replication progression in pluripotent versus differentiated human cells. Genes 15: 305.

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Rösing, S., Ullrich, F., Meisterfeld, S., Schmidt, F., Mlitzko, L., Croon, M., Nattrass, R. G., Eberl, N., Mahlberg, J., Schlee, M., Wieland, A., Simon, P., Hilbig, D., Reuner, U., Rapp, A., Bremser , J., Mirtschink, P., Drukewitz, S., Zillinger, T., Beissert, S., Paeschke, K., Hartmann, G., Trifunovic, A., Bartok, E. and Günther, C. (2024). Chronic endoplasmic reticulum stress in myotonic dystrophy type 2 promotes autoimmunity via mitochondrial DNA release. Nat. Commun. 15:1534.



Prorok, P., Wolf, E. and Cardoso, M. C. (2024). Timeless-Tipin interactions with MCM and RPA mediate DNA replication stress response. Front. Cell Dev. Biol. 12: 1346534.



Schmidt, A. #, Zhang, H. #, Schmitt, S. #, Rausch, C., Popp, O., Chen, J., Cmarko, D., Butter, F., Dittmar, G., Lermyte, F. and Cardoso, M. C. (2024). The proteome composition and organization of constitutive heterochromatin in mouse tissues. Cells 13: 139.



Pabba, M. K.#, Ritter, C.#, Chagin, V. O.#, Meyer, J., Celikay, K., Stear, J. H., Loerke, D., Kolobynina, K., Prorok, P., Schmid, A. K., Leonhardt, H., Rohr, K and Cardoso, M. C. (2023) Replisome loading reduces chromatin motion independent of DNA synthesis eLife 12: RP87572.

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Romero, H., Schmidt, A. and Cardoso, M. C. (2023). Protein level quantification across fluorescence-based platforms. Bio Protoc. 13: e4834. 

Amiri, A., Dietz, C., Rapp, A., Cardoso, M. C. and Stark, R. W. (2023). The cyto-linker and scaffolding protein “plectin” mis-localization leads to softening of cancer cells. Nanoscale 15:15008-15026. doi: 10.1039/d3nr02226a.

Arroyo, M., Cardoso, M. C. and Hastert, F. D. (2023). In situ quantification of cytosine modification levels in heterochromatic domains of cultured mammalian cells. Bio Protoc. 13: e4716. 

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Zhang, H., Qin, W., Romero, H., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2023). Heterochromatin organization and phase separation. Nucleus 14: 1-13. 

Pradhan, S. K. and Cardoso, M. C. (2023). Analysis of cell cycle and DNA compaction dependent subnuclear  distribution of histone marks. Methods Mol Biol. 2589: 225-239. 


Qin, W., Steinek, C., Kolobynina, K., Forne, I., Imhof, A., Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (2022). Probing protein ubiquitination in live cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 50: e125. 

Supplementary Information


Maharana, S., Kretschmer, S., Hunger, S., Yan, X., Kuster, D., Traikov, S., Zillinger, T., Gentzel, M., Elangovan, S., Dasgupta, P., Chappidi, N., Lucas, N., Maser, K. I., Maatz, H., Rapp, A., Marchand, V., Chang, Y-T., Motorin, Y., Hubner, N., Hartmann, G., Hyman, A.A., Alberti, S., Lee-Kirsch, M. A. (2022). SAMHD1 controls innate immunity by regulating condensation of immunogenic self RNA. Molecular Cell 82, 3712–3728.


Paravicini, M.,  Milden, M., Frank, L. M. P. P., Schüßler, M., Cardoso, M. C., Jakoby, R. and Hessinger, C. (2022). Broadband Microwave Electroporation Device for the Analysis of the Influence of Frequency, Temperature and Electrical Field Strength. 44th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC): 1565-1568. doi: 10.1109/EMBC48229.2022.9871912.


Schmidt, A., Frei, J., Poetsch, A., Chittka, A., Zhang, H., Aßmann, C., Lehmkuhl, A., Bauer, U.-M., Nuber, U. and Cardoso, M. C. (2022). MeCP2 heterochromatin organization is modulated by arginine methylation and serine phosphorylation. Front. Cell Dev. Biol. 10: 941493.


Arroyo, M., Hastert, F. D., Zhadan, A., Schelter, F., Zimbelmann, S., Rausch, C., Ludwig, A. K., Carell, T. and Cardoso, M. C. (2022). Isoform-specific and ubiquitination dependent recruitment of Tet1 to replicating heterochromatin modulates methylcytosine oxidation. Nat. Commun. 13: 5173.

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Kolobynina, K. G., Rapp, A. and Cardoso, M. C. (2022). Chromatin ubiquitination guides DNA double-strand break signaling and repair. Front. Cell Dev. Biol. 10: 928113.


Plitta-Michalak, B.#,  Stricker, N.#, Pavez Loriè, E., Chen, I., Pollet, M.,  Krutmann, J., Volkmer, B., Greinert, R., Boukamp, B. and Rapp, A. (2022). Development and characterisation of an irradiation device for biomedical studies covering the solar spectrum with individual regulated spectral bands. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 21: 1701-1717.

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Gao, Q., Chagin, V. O., Cardoso, M. C. and Rohr, K. (2022). Quantifying newly appearing replication foci in cell nuclei based on 3d non-rigid registration. IEEE 19th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI), pp. 1-4. doi: 10.1109/ISBI52829.2022.9761689.


Celikay, K., Chagin, V. O., Cardoso, M. C. and Rohr, K. (2022). Denoisereg: unsupervised joint denoising and registration of time-lapse live cell microscopy images using deep learning. IEEE 19th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI), pp. 1-4. doi: 10.1109/ISBI52829.2022.9761507.


Yin, W., Chagin, V. O., Cardoso, M. C. and Rohr, K. (2022). Non-rigid registration of temporal live cell microscopy image sequences using deep learning. Proc. SPIE 12032, Medical Imaging: Image Processing, 120321B. doi.org/10.1117/12.2611440.  

Spilger, R., Chagin, V. O., Bold, C. S., Schermelleh, L., Müller, U. C., Cardoso, M. C. and Rohr, K. (2022). Deep neural network for 3D particle detection in 3D fluorescence microscopy images via density map regression. IEEE 19th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI), pp. 1-4. doi: 10.1109/ISBI52829.2022.9761509.


Mamberti, S., Pabba, M. K., Rapp, A., Cardoso, M. C.# and Scholz, M.# (2022). The chromatin architectural protein CTCF is critical for cell survival upon irradiation-induced DNA damage. Int. J. Mol. Sci.  23: 3896.

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Zhang, H. #, Romero, H. #, Schmidt, A., Gagova, K. Qin, W., Bertulat, B., Lehmkuhl, A., Milden, M., Eck, M., Meckel, T., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2022). MeCP2-induced heterochromatin organization is driven by oligomerization-based liquid-liquid phase separation and restricted by DNA methylation. Nucleus 13: 1-34

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Rausch, C., Zhang, P., Casas-Delucchi, C. S., Daiß, J. L., Engel, C., Coster, G., Hastert, F. D., Weber, P. and Cardoso, M. C. (2021). Cytosine base modifications regulate DNA duplex stability and metabolism. Nucleic Acids Res. 49: 12870-12894.



Spilger, R., Lee, J.-Y., Chagin, V. O., Schermelleh, L., Cardoso, M. C., Bartenschlager, R. and Rohr, K. (2021). Deep probabilistic tracking of particles in fluorescence microscopy images. Med. Im. Anal. 72: 102128.


Duan, N., Arroyo, M., Deng, W., Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (2021). Visualization and characterization of RNA-protein interactions in living cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 49: e107.



Qin, W., Ugur, E., Mulholland, C. B., Bultmann, S., Solovei, I., Modic, M., Smets, M., Wierer, M., Forne, I., Imhof, A., Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (2021). Phosphorylation of the HP1 beta hinge region sequesters KAP1 in heterochromatin and promotes exit from naive pluripotency. Nucleic Acids Res. 49: 7406-7423

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Gao, Q., Chagin, V. O., Cardoso, M. C. and Rohr, K. (2021). Non-rigid registration of live cell nuclei using global optical flow with elasticity constraints. Proc. IEEE Internat. Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2021), Nice, France, April 13-16, 2021, IEEE Piscataway, NJ, 1457-1460.


Gnan, S., Flyamer, I., Klein, K. N., Castelli, E., Rapp, A., Maiser, A., Chen, N., Weber, P., Enervald, E, Cardoso, M. C., Bickmore, W. A., Gilbert, D. M. and Buonomo, S. C. B. (2021). Nuclear organization and replication timing are coupled through RIF1-PP1 interaction. Nat. Commun. 12: 2910.

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Schneider, A. F. L., Kithil, M., Cardoso, M. C., Lehmann, M. Hackenberger, C. P. R. (2021). Cellular uptake of large biomolecules enabled by cell-surface-reactive cell-penetrating peptide additives. Nat. Chem. 13: 530-539. 

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Schwach, J., Kolobynina, K., Brandstetter, K., Gerlach, M., Ochtrop, P., Helma, J., Hackenberger, C. P. R., Harz, H., Cardoso, M. C. Leonhardt, H. and Stengl, A. (2021). Site-specific antibody fragment conjugates for reversible staining in fluorescence microscopy. ChemBioChem 22: 1205-1209.



Levone, B. R., Lenzken, S. C., Antonaci, M., Maiser, A., Rapp, A., Conte, F., Reber, S., Mechtersheimer, J., Ronchi, A. E., Mühlemann, O., Leonhardt, H., Cardoso, M. C., Ruepp, M.-D. and Barabino, S. M. L. (2021). FUS-dependent liquid-liquid phase separation is an early event in double-strand break repair. J. Cell Biol. 220: e202008030. 

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Qin, W., Stengl, A., Ugur, E., Leidescher, S., Ryan, J., Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (2021). HP1 beta carries an acidic linker domain and requires H3K9me3 for phase separation. Nucleus 12: 44-57.

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Amiri, A., Hastert, F. D. and Dietz, C. (2020). Carcinomas with Occult Metastasis Potential: Diagnosis/Prognosis Accuracy Improvement by Means of Force Spectroscopy. Adv. Biosys. 4: 2000042.


Amiri, A., Hastert, F. D., Heim, L.-O. and Dietz, C. (2020). Reliability of cancer cell elasticity in force microscopy. Appl. Phys. Lett. 116: 083701.


Rausch, C.#, Weber, P.#, Prorok, P., Hörl, D., Maiser, A., Lehmkuhl, A., Chagin, V. O., Casas-Delucchi, C. S., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2020). Developmental differences in genome replication program and origin activation. Nucleic Acids Res. 48: 12751-12777.  

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Cremer, M., Brandstetter, K., Maiser, A., Rao, S. S. P., Schmid, V. J., Guirao-Ortiz, M., Mitra, N., Mamberti, S., Klein, K. N., Gilbert, D. M., Leonhardt, H., Cardoso, M. C., Aiden, E. L., Harz, H. and Cremer, T. (2020). Cohesin depleted cells rebuild functional nuclear compartments after endomitosis. Nat. Commun. 11: 6146.

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Weichmann, F., Hett, R., Schepers, A., Ito-Kureha, T., Flatley, A., Slama, K., Hastert, F. D., Angstmann, N., Cardoso, M. C., König, J., Hüttelmaier, S., Dieterich, C., Canzar, S., Helm, M., Heissmeyer, V., Feederle, R. and Meister, G. (2020). Validation strategies for antibodies targeting modified ribonucleotides. RNA 26: 1489-1506.


Pavez Lorie, E.#, Stricker, N.#, Plitta-Michalak, B.#, Chen, I.-P., Volkmer, B., Greinert, R., Jauch, A., Boukamp, P., and Rapp, A. (2020). Characterisation of the novel spontaneously immortalized and invasively growing human skin keratinocyte line HaSKpw. Sci. Rep. 10, 15196.

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Mamberti, S. and Cardoso, M. C. (2020). Are the processes of DNA replication and DNA repair reading a common structural chromatin unit? Nucleus 11: 66-82.

Schmidt, A.#, Zhang, H.# and Cardoso, M. C. (2020). MeCP2 and chromatin compartmentalization. Cells 9: 878.

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Schneider, M., Trummer, C., Stengl, A., Zhang, P., Szwagierczak, A., Cardoso, M. C., Leonhardt, H., Bauer, C. and Antes, I. (2020). Systematic analysis of the binding behaviour of UHRF1 towards different methyl- and carboxylcytosine modification patterns at CpG dyads. PLoS ONE 15: e0229144.

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Arroyo, M., Canuelo, A,. Calahorra, J., Hastert, F. D., Sanchez, A., Clarke, D. J. and Marchal, J. A. (2020). Mitotic entry upon Topo II catalytic inhibition is controlled by Chk1 and Plk1. FEBS J. 287: 4933.


Napolitano, G., Tagliaferri, D., Fusco, S., Cirillo, C., De Martino, I., Addeo, M., Mazzone, P., Russo, N. A., Natale, F., Cardoso, M. C., De Luca, L., Lamorte, D., La Rocca, F., De Felice, M. and Falco, G. (2020). A novel member of the Prame family, Gm12794c, counteracts retinoic acid differentiation through the methyltransferase activity of PRC2. Cell Death Diff. 27: 345-362.

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Rausch, C. Hastert, F. D. and Cardoso, M. C. (2020). DNA modification readers, writers and their interplay. J. Mol. Biol. 432: 1731-1746.






Chagin, V. O., Reinhart, B., Becker, A., Mortusewicz, O., Jost, K. L., Rapp, A., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2019). Processive DNA synthesis is associated with localized decompaction of constitutive heterochromatin at the sites of DNA replication and repair. Nucleus 10: 231-253.

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Amiri, A., Hastert, F.D., Stühn, L., Dietz, C. (2019). Structural analysis of healthy and cancerous epithelial-type breast cells by nanomechanical spectroscopy allows us to obtain peculiarities of the skeleton and junctions. Nanoscale Adv. 1: 4853-4862

Heinz, K. S. and Cardoso, M. C. (2019). Targeted manipulation/repositioning of subcellular structures and molecules. Methods Mol Biol. 2038: 199-208. 


Kasper, M.-A., Glanz, M., Stengl, A., Penkert, M., Klenk, S., Sauer, T., Schumacher, D., Helma, J., Krause, E., Cardoso, M. C., Leonhardt, H. and Hackenberger, C. P. R. (2019). Cysteine-selective phosphonamidate electrophiles for modular protein bioconjugations. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 58: 11625-11630.


Zhang, Y., Bertulat, B., Tencer, A. H., Ren, X., Wright, G. M., Black, J., Cardoso, M. C., and Kutateladze, T. G. (2019). MORC3 Forms Nuclear Condensates through Phase Separation. iScience 17: 181-198.

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Schmidt, S., Schüßler, M., Hessinger, C., Schuster, C., Bertulat, B., Kithil, M., Cardoso, M. C., Jakoby, R. (2019). Microwave Induced Electroporation of Adherent Mammalian Cells at 18 GHz. IEEEAccess 7: 78698-78705.

Zhang, Y., Klein, B. J., Cox, K. L., Bertulat, B., Tencer, A. H., Holden, M. R., Wright, G. M., Black, J., Cardoso, M. C., Poirier, M. G., and Kutateladze, T. G. (2019). Mechanism for autoinhibition and activation of the MORC3 ATPase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 116: 6111-6119.

Heinz, K. S., Rapp, A., Casas-Delucchi, C. S., Lehmkuhl, A., Romero-Fernandez, I., Sanchez, A., Kramer, O. H., Marchal, J. A., and Cardoso, M. C. (2019). DNA replication dynamics of vole genome and its epigenetic regulation. Epigenetics Chromatin 12: 18.

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Weber, P.#, Rausch, C.#, Scholl, A., and Cardoso, M. C. (2019). Repli-FISH (Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization): Application of 3D-(Immuno)-FISH for the Study of DNA Replication Timing of Genetic Repeat Elements. OBM Genetics 3: 31.

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Natale, F.#, Scholl, A.#, Rapp, A.#, Yu, W., Rausch, C., and Cardoso, M. C. (2018). DNA replication and repair kinetics of Alu, LINE-1 and satellite III genomic repetitive elements. Epigenetics Chromatin 11: 61.

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Heinz, K. S., Casas-Delucchi, C. S., Torok, T., Cmarko, D., Rapp, A., Raska, I. and Cardoso, M. C. (2018). Peripheral re-localization of constitutive heterochromatin advances its replication timing and impairs maintenance of silencing marks. Nucleic Acids Res 46: 6112-6128.

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Kind, B., Wolf, C., Engel, K., Rapp, A., Cardoso, M. C. and Lee-Kirsch, M. A. (2018). Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis for the Detection of Genomic Ribonucleotides. Methods Mol Biol 1672: 311-318.





Zhang, P., Hastert, F. D., Ludwig, A. K., Breitwieser, K., Hofstätter, M. and Cardoso, M. C. (2017). DNA base flipping analytical pipeline, Biology Methods and Protocols 2: 1-12.


Erbeldinger, N., Rapp, F., Ktitareva, S., Wendel, P., Bothe, A. S., Dettmering, T., Durante, M., Friedrich, T., Bertulat, B., Meyer, S., Cardoso, M. C., Hehlgans, S., Rodel, F. and Fournier, C. (2017). Measuring Leukocyte Adhesion to (Primary) Endothelial Cells after Photon and Charged Particle Exposure with a Dedicated Laminar Flow Chamber. Front Immunol 8: 627.


Ludwig, A. K.#, Zhang, P.#, Hastert, F. D., Meyer, S., Rausch, C., Herce, H. D., Muller, U., Lehmkuhl, A., Hellmann, I., Trummer, C., Storm, C., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2017). Binding of MBD proteins to DNA blocks Tet1 function thereby modulating transcriptional noise. Nucleic Acids Res 45: 2438-2457.

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Muster, B.#, Rapp, A.# and Cardoso, M. C. (2017). Systematic analysis of DNA damage induction and DNA repair pathway activation by continuous wave visible light laser micro-irradiation. AIMS Genetics 4: 47-68.

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Reinhart, M. and Cardoso, M. C. (2017). A journey through the microscopic ages of DNA replication. Protoplasma 254: 1151-1162.



Herce, H. D.*#, Schumacher, D.*#, Schneider, A. F. L., Ludwig, A. K., Mann, F. A., Fillies, M., Kasper, M. A., Reinke, S., Krause, E., Leonhardt, H., Cardoso, M. C. and Hackenberger, C. P. R. (2017). Cell-permeable nanobodies for targeted immunolabelling and antigen manipulation in living cells. Nat Chem 9: 762-771.

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Zhang, P.#, Ludwig, A. K.#, Hastert, F. D., Rausch, C., Lehmkuhl, A., Hellmann, I., Smets, M., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2017). L1 retrotransposition is activated by Ten-eleven-translocation protein 1 and repressed by methyl-CpG binding proteins. Nucleus 8: 548-562.

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Natale, F.#, Rapp, A#., Yu, W., Maiser, A., Harz, H., Scholl, A., Grulich, S., Anton, T., Horl, D., Chen, W., Durante, M., Taucher-Scholz, G., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M.C. (2017). Identification of the elementary structural units of the DNA damage response. Nat Commun 8: 15760.

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Zhang, P., Rausch, C., Hastert, F. D., Boneva, B., Filatova, A., Patil, S. J., Nuber, U. A., Gao, Y., Zhao, X. and Cardoso, M. C. (2017). Methyl-CpG binding domain protein 1 regulates localization and activity of Tet1 in a CXXC3 domain-dependent manner. Nucleic Acids Res 45: 7118-7136.

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Becker, A., Zhang, P., Allmann, L., Meilinger, D., Bertulat, B., Eck, D., Hofstaetter, M., Bartolomei, G., Hottiger, M. O., Schreiber, V., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2016). Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Methyl CpG Binding Domain Protein 2 Regulates Chromatin Structure. J Biol Chem 291: 4873-4881.


Chagin, V. O., Casas-Delucchi, C. S., Reinhart, M., Schermelleh, L., Markaki, Y., Maiser, A., Bolius, J. J., Bensimon, A., Fillies, M., Domaing, P., Rozanov, Y. M., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2016). 4D Visualization of replication foci in mammalian cells corresponding to individual replicons. Nat Commun 7: 11231.

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Gracheva, E., Chitale, S., Wilhelm, T., Rapp, A., Byrne, J., Stadler, J., Medina, R., Cardoso, M. C. and Richly, H. (2016). ZRF1 mediates remodeling of E3 ligases at DNA lesion sites during nucleotide excision repair. J Cell Biol 213: 185-200.


Lob, D.#, Lengert, N.#, Chagin, V. O.#, Reinhart, M., Casas-Delucchi, C. S., Cardoso, M. C. and Drossel, B. (2016). 3D replicon distributions arise from stochastic initiation and domino-like DNA replication progression. Nat Commun 7: 11207.

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Link to software


Ludwig, A. K.#, Zhang, P.# and Cardoso, M. C. (2016). Modifiers and Readers of DNA Modifications and their Impact on Genome Structure, Expression and Stability in Disease. Frontiers in Genetics 7.

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Martin, R. M., Herce, H. D., Ludwig, A. K. and Cardoso, M. C. (2016). Visualization of the Nucleolus in Living Cells with Cell-Penetrating Fluorescent Peptides. Methods Mol Biol 1455: 71-82.


Wolf, C., Rapp, A., Berndt, N., Staroske, W., Schuster, M., Dobrick-Mattheuer, M., Kretschmer, S., Konig, N., Kurth, T., Wieczorek, D., Kast, K., Cardoso, M. C., Gunther, C. and Lee-Kirsch, M. A. (2016). RPA and Rad51 constitute a cell intrinsic mechanism to protect the cytosol from self DNA. Nat Commun 7: 11752.



Chagin, V. O.#, Reinhart, M.# and Cardoso, M. C. (2015). High-resolution analysis of Mammalian DNA replication units. Methods Mol Biol 1300: 43-65.

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Helma, J., Cardoso, M. C., Muyldermans, S. and Leonhardt, H. (2015). Nanobodies and recombinant binders in cell biology. J Cell Biol 209: 633-644.


Jost, K. L.#, Bertulat, B.#, Rapp, A., Brero, A., Hardt, T., Domaing, P., Gosele, C., Schulz, H., Hubner, N. and Cardoso, M. C. (2015). Gene repositioning within the cell nucleus is not random and is determined by its genomic neighborhood. Epigenetics Chromatin 8: 36.

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Kretschmer, S., Wolf, C., Konig, N., Staroske, W., Guck, J., Hausler, M., Luksch, H., Nguyen, L. A., Kim, B., Alexopoulou, D., Dahl, A., Rapp, A., Cardoso, M. C., Shevchenko, A. and Lee-Kirsch, M. A. (2015). SAMHD1 prevents autoimmunity by maintaining genome stability. Ann Rheum Dis 74: e17.


Lengert, L., Lengert, N., Drossel, B., Cardoso, M. C., Muster, B., Nowak, D. and Rapp, A. (2015). Discrimination of kinetic models by a combination of microirradiation and fluorescence photobleaching. Biophys. J. 109: 1551-1564.


Martin, R. M., Ter-Avetisyan, G., Herce, H. D., Ludwig, A. K., Lattig-Tunnemann, G. and Cardoso, M. C. (2015). Principles of protein targeting to the nucleolus. Nucleus 6: 314-325.

Supplementary Information


Nischan, N.#, Herce, H. D.#, Natale, F., Bohlke, N., Budisa, N., Cardoso, M. C*. and Hackenberger, C. P.* (2015). Covalent Attachment of Cyclic TAT Peptides to GFP Results in Protein Delivery into Live Cells with Immediate Bioavailability. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 54: 1950-1953.

* Corresponding authors   # First Authors   Movie 1


Rajan, M., Mortusewicz, O., Rothbauer, U., Hastert, F. D., Schmidthals, K., Rapp, A., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2015). Generation of an alpaca-derived nanobody recognizing γ-H2AX. FEBS Open Biol 5: 779-788.


Romero-Fernandez, I., Casas-Delucchi, C. S., Cano-Linares, M., Arroyo, M., Sanchez, A., Cardoso, M. C. and Marchal, J. A. (2015). Epigenetic modifications in sex heterochromatin of vole rodents. Chromosoma 124: 341-351.


Schumacher, D., Helma, J., Mann, F. A., Pichler, G., Natale, F., Krause, E., Cardoso, M. C., Hackenberger, C. P. and Leonhardt, H. (2015). Versatile and Efficient Site-Specific Protein Functionalization by Tubulin Tyrosine Ligase. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 54: 13787-13791.



Cazzalini, O., Sommatis, S., Tillhon, M., Dutto, I., Bachi, A., Rapp, A., Nardo, T., Scovassi, A. I., Necchi, D., Cardoso, M. C., Stivala, L. A. and Prosperi, E. (2014). CBP and p300 acetylate PCNA to link its degradation with nucleotide excision repair synthesis. Nucleic Acids Res 42: 8433-8448.


Dornblut, C., Quinn, N., Monajambashi, S., Prendergast, L., Van Vuuren, C., Münch, S., Deng, W., Leonhardt, H., Cardoso, M. C., Hoischen, C., Diekmann, S. and Sullivan, K. F. (2014). A CENP-S/X complex assembles at the centromere in S and G2 phases of the human cell cycle. Open Biol 4: 130229.


Herce, H. D., Garcia, A. E. and Cardoso, M. C. (2014). Fundamental molecular mechanism for the cellular uptake of guanidinium-rich molecules. J Am Chem Soc 136: 17459-17467.

Movie 1   Movie 2   Movie 3   Movie 4   Movie 5   Movie 6   Movie 7   Movie 8   Movie 9   Movie 10


Herce, H. D.#, Rajan, M.#, Lattig-Tunnemann, G., Fillies, M. and Cardoso, M. C. (2014). A novel cell permeable DNA replication and repair marker. Nucleus 5: 590-600.

# First Authors


Kind, B.#, Muster, B.#, Staroske, W., Herce, H. D., Sachse, R., Rapp, A., Schmidt, F., Koss, S., Cardoso, M. C.* and Lee-Kirsch, M. A.* (2014). Altered spatio-temporal dynamics of RNase H2 complex assembly at replication and repair sites in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome. Hum Mol Genet 23: 5950-5960.

* Corresponding authors   # First Authors


Sansoni, V., Casas-Delucchi, C. S., Rajan, M., Schmidt, A., Bonisch, C., Thomae, A. W., Staege, M. S., Hake, S. B., Cardoso, M. C. and Imhof, A. (2014). The histone variant H2A.Bbd is enriched at sites of DNA synthesis. Nucleic Acids Res 42: 6405-6420.

Movie 1


Smirnov, E., Borkovec, J., Kovacik, L., Svidenska, S., Schrofel, A., Skalnikova, M., Svindrych, Z., Krizek, P., Ovesny, M., Hagen, G. M., Juda, P., Michalova, K., Cardoso, M. C., Cmarko, D. and Raska, I. (2014). Separation of replication and transcription domains in nucleoli. J Struct Biol 188: 259-266.


Song, C., Feodorova, Y., Guy, J., Peichl, L., Jost, K. L., Kimura, H., Cardoso, M. C., Bird, A., Leonhardt, H., Joffe, B. and Solovei, I. (2014). DNA methylation reader MECP2: cell type- and differentiation stage-specific protein distribution. Epigenetics Chromatin 7: 17.


Wieneke, R., Laboria, N., Rajan, M., Kollmannsperger, A., Natale, F., Cardoso, M. C. and Tampe, R. (2014). Live-cell targeting of his-tagged proteins by multivalent N-nitrilotriacetic acid carrier complexes. J Am Chem Soc 136: 13975-13978.



Becker, A., Allmann, L., Hofstatter, M., Casa, V., Weber, P., Lehmkuhl, A., Herce, H. D. and Cardoso, M. C. (2013). Direct homo- and hetero-interactions of MeCP2 and MBD2. PLoS One 8: e53730.


Brink, M. C., Piebes, D. G., De Groote, M. L., Luijsterburg, M. S., Casas-Delucchi, C. S., Van Driel, R., Rots, M. G., Cardoso, M. C. and Verschure, P. J. (2013). A role for MeCP2 in switching gene activity via chromatin unfolding and HP1gamma displacement. PLoS One 8: e69347.


Herce, H. D., Casas-Delucchi, C. S. and Cardoso, M. C. (2013). New image colocalization coefficient for fluorescence microscopy to quantify (bio-)molecular interactions. J Microsc 249: 184-194.

Link to software


Herce, H. D., Deng, W., Helma, J., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2013). Visualization and targeted disruption of protein interactions in living cells. Nat Commun 4: 2660.

Movie 1


Horner, S., Fabritz, S., Herce, H. D., Avrutina, O., Dietz, C., Stark, R. W., Cardoso, M. C. and Kolmar, H. (2013). Cube-octameric silsesquioxane-mediated cargo peptide delivery into living cancer cells. Org Biomol Chem 11: 2258-2265.


Reinhart, M.#, Casas-Delucchi, C. S.# and Cardoso, M. C. (2013). Spatiotemporal visualization of DNA replication dynamics. Methods Mol Biol 1042: 213-225.

# First Authors   Movie 1


Bertulat, B., De Bonis, M. L., Della Ragione, F., Lehmkuhl, A., Milden, M., Storm, C., Jost, K. L., Scala, S., Hendrich, B., D'esposito, M. and Cardoso, M. C. (2012). MeCP2 dependent heterochromatin reorganization during neural differentiation of a novel Mecp2-deficient embryonic stem cell reporter line. PLoS One 7: e47848.


Cardoso, M. C., Schneider, K., Martin, R. M. and Leonhardt, H. (2012). Structure, function and dynamics of nuclear subcompartments. Curr Opin Cell Biol 24: 79-85.

Movie 1


Casas-Delucchi, C. S.#, Becker, A.#, Bolius, J. J. and Cardoso, M. C. (2012). Targeted manipulation of heterochromatin rescues MeCP2 Rett mutants and re-establishes higher order chromatin organization. Nucleic Acids Res 40: e176.

# First Authors   Movie 1


Casas-Delucchi, C. S., Van Bemmel, J. G., Haase, S., Herce, H. D., Nowak, D., Meilinger, D., Stear, J. H., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2012). Histone hypoacetylation is required to maintain late replication timing of constitutive heterochromatin. Nucleic Acids Res 40: 159-169.

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Eskat, A., Deng, W., Hofmeister, A., Rudolphi, S., Emmerth, S., Hellwig, D., Ulbricht, T., Doring, V., Bancroft, J. M., Mcainsh, A. D., Cardoso, M. C., Meraldi, P., Hoischen, C., Leonhardt, H. and Diekmann, S. (2012). Step-wise assembly, maturation and dynamic behavior of the human CENP-P/O/R/Q/U kinetochore sub-complex. PLoS One 7: e44717.


Greinert, R., Volkmer, B., Henning, S., Breitbart, E. W., Greulich, K. O., Cardoso, M. C. and Rapp, A. (2012). UVA-induced DNA double-strand breaks result from the repair of clustered oxidative DNA damages. Nucleic Acids Res 40: 10263-10273.


Jost, K. L.#, Bertulat, B.# and Cardoso, M. C. (2012). Heterochromatin and gene positioning: inside, outside, any side? Chromosoma 121: 555-563.

# First Authors


Vasiliou, S. A., Ali, F. R., Haddley, K., Cardoso, M. C., Bubb, V. J. and Quinn, J. P. (2012). The SLC6A4 VNTR genotype determines transcription factor binding and epigenetic variation of this gene in response to cocaine in vitro. Addict Biol 17: 156-170.



Agarwal, N.#, Becker, A.#, Jost, K. L., Haase, S., Thakur, B. K., Brero, A., Hardt, T., Kudo, S., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2011). MeCP2 Rett mutations affect large scale chromatin organization. Hum Mol Genet 20: 4187-4195.

# First Authors


Casas-Delucchi, C. S.#, Brero, A.#, Rahn, H. P., Solovei, I., Wutz, A., Cremer, T., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2011). Histone acetylation controls the inactive X chromosome replication dynamics. Nat Commun 2: 222.

# First Authors   Movie 1   Movie 2   Movie 3   Movie 4


Casas-Delucchi, C. S. and Cardoso, M. C. (2011). Epigenetic control of DNA replication dynamics in mammals. Nucleus 2: 370-382.


Frauer, C., Hoffmann, T., Bultmann, S., Casa, V., Cardoso, M. C., Antes, I. and Leonhardt, H. (2011). Recognition of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine by the Uhrf1 SRA domain. PLoS One 6: e21306.


Jost, K. L., Haase, S., Smeets, D., Schrode, N., Schmiedel, J. M., Bertulat, B., Herzel, H., Cremer, M. and Cardoso, M. C. (2011). 3D-Image analysis platform monitoring relocation of pluripotency genes during reprogramming. Nucleic Acids Res 39: e113.

Movie 1   Movie 2

Link to Randomizer


Jost, K. L., Rottach, A., Milden, M., Bertulat, B., Becker, A., Wolf, P., Sandoval, J., Petazzi, P., Huertas, D., Esteller, M., Kremmer, E., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2011). Generation and Characterization of Rat and Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for MeCP2 and Their Use in X-Inactivation Studies. PLoS One 6: e26499.


Lattig-Tunnemann, G., Prinz, M., Hoffmann, D., Behlke, J., Palm-Apergi, C., Morano, I., Herce, H. D. and Cardoso, M. C. (2011). Backbone rigidity and static presentation of guanidinium groups increases cellular uptake of arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides. Nat Commun 2: 453.

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Masata, M., Juda, P., Raska, O., Cardoso, M. C. and Raska, I. (2011). A fraction of MCM 2 proteins remain associated with replication foci during a major part of S phase. Folia Biol (Praha) 57: 3-11.



Baddeley, D.#, Chagin, V. O.#, Schermelleh, L., Martin, S., Pombo, A., Carlton, P. M., Gahl, A., Domaing, P., Birk, U., Leonhardt, H., Cremer, C. and Cardoso, M. C. (2010). Measurement of replication structures at the nanometer scale using super-resolution light microscopy. Nucleic Acids Res 38: e8.

# First Authors


Chagin, V. O., Stear, J. H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2010). Organization of DNA Replication. In The Nucleus, T. Misteli, and D. L. Spector, (New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory): a000737.

Movie 1


Jaeger, S., Palaniappan, K., Casas-Delucchi, C. S. and Cardoso, M. C. (2010). Classification of cell cycle phases in 3D confocal microscopy using PCNA and chromocenter features. Proceedings of the Seventh Indian Conference on Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing ICVGIP '10 412-418.


Kirchhofer, A., Helma, J., Schmidthals, K., Frauer, C., Cui, S., Karcher, A., Pellis, M., Muyldermans, S., Casas-Delucchi, C. S., Cardoso, M. C., Leonhardt, H., Hopfner, K. P. and Rothbauer, U. (2010). Modulation of protein properties in living cells using nanobodies. Nat Struct Mol Biol 17: 133-138.


Martin, R. M. and Cardoso, M. C. (2010). Chromatin condensation modulates access and binding of nuclear proteins. FASEB J 24: 1066-1072.



Zhu, Y., Wu, Z., Cardoso, M. C. and Parris, D. S. (2010). Processing of lagging strand intermediates in vitro by herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA polymerase. J Virol 84: 7459-7472.



Ciobanasu, C., Harms, E., Tünnemann, G., Cardoso, M. C. and Kubitscheck, U. (2009). Cell-penetrating HIV1 TAT peptides float on model lipid bilayers. Biochemistry 48: 4728-4737.

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Ersoy, I., Bunyak, F., Chagin, V., Cardoso, M. C. and Palaniappan, K. (2009). Segmentation and classification of cell cycle phases in fluorescence imaging. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 12: 617-624.


Grigaravicius, P., Rapp, A. and Greulich, K. O. (2009). A direct view by immunofluorescent comet assay (IFCA) of DNA damage induced by nicking and cutting enzymes, ionizing (137)Cs radiation, UV-A laser microbeam irradiation and the radiomimetic drug bleomycin. Mutagenesis 24: 191-197.


Liska, F., Gosele, C., Rivkin, E., Tres, L., Cardoso, M. C., Domaing, P., Krejci, E., Snajdr, P., Lee-Kirsch, M. A., De Rooij, D. G., Kren, V., Krenova, D., Kierszenbaum, A. L. and Hubner, N. (2009). Rat hd mutation reveals an essential role of centrobin in spermatid head shaping and assembly of the head-tail coupling apparatus. Biol Reprod 81: 1196-1205.


Ter-Avetisyan, G., Tünnemann, G., Nowak, D., Nitschke, M., Herrmann, A., Drab, M. and Cardoso, M. C. (2009). Cell entry of arginine-rich peptides is independent of endocytosis. J Biol Chem 284: 3370-3378.

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Tünnemann, G. and Cardoso, M. C. (2009). Cell-Penetrating Peptides - Uptake, Toxicity and Applications. In Membrane-Active Peptides: Methods and Results on Structure and Function, M. Castanho, (La Jolla, California: IUL Publishers): 331-362.


Zainol, M., Stoute, J., Almeida, G. M., Rapp, A., Bowman, K. J., Jones, G. D. and Ecvag (2009). Introducing a true internal standard for the Comet assay to minimize intra- and inter-experiment variability in measures of DNA damage and repair. Nucleic Acids Res 37: e150.



Rottach, A., Kremmer, E., Nowak, D., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2008). Generation and characterization of a rat monoclonal antibody specific for multiple red fluorescent proteins. Hybridoma 27: 337-343.


Görisch, S. M.#, Sporbert, A.#, Stear, J. H., Grunewald, I., Nowak, D., Warbrick, E., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2008). Uncoupling the replication machinery: replication fork progression in the absence of processive DNA synthesis. Cell Cycle 7: 1983-1990.

# First Authors   Movie 1   Movie 2


Grünwald, D., Martin, R. M., Buschmann, V., Bazett-Jones, D. P., Leonhardt, H., Kubitscheck, U. and Cardoso, M. C. (2008). Probing intranuclear environments at the single-molecule level. Biophys J 94: 2847-2858.

Movie 1


Gupta, S., Höpner, S., Rupp, B., Günther, S., Dickhaut, K., Agarwal, N., Cardoso, M. C., Kühne, R., Wiesmüller, K. H., Jung, G., Falk, K. and Rötzschke, O. (2008). Anchor side chains of short peptide fragments trigger ligand-exchange of class II MHC molecules. PLoS One 3: e1814.


Mortusewicz, O., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2008). Spatiotemporal dynamics of regulatory protein recruitment at DNA damage sites. J Cell Biochem 104: 1562-1569.


Mortusewicz, O., Roth, W., Li, N., Cardoso, M. C., Meisterernst, M. and Leonhardt, H. (2008). Recruitment of RNA polymerase II cofactor PC4 to DNA damage sites. J Cell Biol 183: 769-776.


Nitschke, M., Korte, T., Tielesch, C., Ter-Avetisyan, G., Tünnemann, G., Cardoso, M. C., Veit, M. and Herrmann, A. (2008). Equine arteritis virus is delivered to an acidic compartment of host cells via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Virology 377: 248-254.


Rothbauer, U., Zolghadr, K., Muyldermans, S., Schepers, A., Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (2008). A versatile nanotrap for biochemical and functional studies with fluorescent fusion proteins. Mol Cell Proteomics 7: 282-289.


Rottach, A., Kremmer, E., Nowak, D., Boisguerin, P., Volkmer, R., Cardoso, M. C., Leonhardt, H. and Rothbauer, U. (2008). Generation and characterization of a rat monoclonal antibody specific for PCNA. Hybridoma (Larchmt) 27: 91-98.


Schermelleh, L., Carlton, P. M., Haase, S., Shao, L., Winoto, L., Kner, P., Burke, B., Cardoso, M. C., Agard, D. A., Gustafsson, M. G., Leonhardt, H. and Sedat, J. W. (2008). Subdiffraction multicolor imaging of the nuclear periphery with 3D structured illumination microscopy. Science 320: 1332-1336.

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Shumaker, D. K., Solimando, L., Sengupta, K., Shimi, T., Adam, S. A., Grünwald, A., Strelkov, S. V., Aebi, U., Cardoso, M. C. and Goldman, R. D. (2008). The highly conserved nuclear lamin Ig-fold binds to PCNA: its role in DNA replication. J Cell Biol 181: 269-280.


Tünnemann, G., Ter-Avetisyan, G., Martin, R. M., Stöckl, M., Herrmann, A. and Cardoso, M. C. (2008). Live-cell analysis of cell penetration ability and toxicity of oligo-arginines. J Pept Sci 14: 469-476.

Movie 1


Zolghadr, K., Mortusewicz, O., Rothbauer, U., Kleinhans, R., Goehler, H., Wanker, E. E., Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (2008). A fluorescent two-hybrid assay for direct visualization of protein interactions in living cells. Mol Cell Proteomics 7: 2279-2287.



Agarwal, N., Hardt, T., Brero, A., Nowak, D., Rothbauer, U., Becker, A., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2007). MeCP2 interacts with HP1 and modulates its heterochromatin association during myogenic differentiation. Nucleic Acids Res 35: 5402-5408.


Easwaran, H. P., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2007). Distribution of DNA replication proteins in Drosophila cells. BMC Cell Biol 8: 42.



Martin, R. M., Görisch, S. M., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2007). An unexpected link between energy metabolism, calcium, chromatin condensation and cell cycle. Cell Cycle 6: 2422-2424.


Martin, R. M., Tünnemann, G., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2007). Nucleolar marker for living cells. Histochem Cell Biol 127: 243-251.

Movie 1


Schermelleh, L., Haemmer, A., Spada, F., Rösing, N., Meilinger, D., Rothbauer, U., Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (2007). Dynamics of Dnmt1 interaction with the replication machinery and its role in postreplicative maintenance of DNA methylation. Nucleic Acids Res 35: 4301-4312.


Tünnemann, G., Karczewski, P., Haase, H., Cardoso, M. C.* and Morano, I.* (2007). Modulation of muscle contraction by a cell-permeable peptide. J Mol Med 85: 1405-1412.

* Corresponding authors


Von Vietinghoff, S., Tünnemann, G., Eulenberg, C., Wellner, M., Cardoso, M. C., Luft, F. C. and Kettritz, R. (2007). NB1 mediates surface expression of the ANCA antigen proteinase 3 on human neutrophils. Blood 109: 4487-4493.



Brero, A., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2006). Replication and translation of epigenetic information. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 301: 21-44.


Cardoso, M. C. (2006). Fluorescence microscopy: spectral imaging vs. filter-based imaging. In Encyclopedic Reference of Genomics and Proteomics in Molecular Medicine, G. D., and K. Ruckpaul, (Berlin: Springer-Verlag): 583-586.


Görisch, S. M. and Cardoso, M. C. (2006). PCNA and DNA replication (I). In Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, H. Lee, and M. Szyf, (Research SignPost): 51-70.


Haase, H., Dobbernack, G., Tünnemann, G., Karczewski, P., Cardoso, C., Petzhold, D., Schlegel, W.P., Lutter, S., Pierschalek, P., Behlke, J., and Morano, I. (2006). Minigenes encoding N-terminal domains of human cardiac myosin light chain-1 improve heart function of transgenic rats. FASEB J 20, 865-873.


Mortusewicz, O., Rothbauer, U., Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (2006). Differential recruitment of DNA Ligase I and III to DNA repair sites. Nucleic Acids Res 34: 3523-3532.


Perucca, P., Cazzalini, O., Mortusewicz, O., Necchi, D., Savio, M., Nardo, T., Stivala, L. A., Leonhardt, H., Cardoso, M. C. and Prosperi, E. (2006). Spatiotemporal dynamics of p21CDKN1A protein recruitment to DNA-damage sites and interaction with proliferating cell nuclear antigen. J Cell Sci 119: 1517-1527.


Rothbauer, U., Zolghadr, K., Tillib, S., Nowak, D., Schermelleh, L., Gahl, A., Backmann, N., Conrath, K., Muyldermans, S., Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (2006). Targeting and tracing antigens in live cells with fluorescent nanobodies. Nat Methods 3: 887-889.

Movie 1   Movie 2


Tünnemann, G., Martin, R. M., Haupt, S., Patsch, C., Edenhofer, F. and Cardoso, M. C. (2006). Cargo-dependent mode of uptake and bioavailability of TAT-containing proteins and peptides in living cells. FASEB J 20: 1775-1784.


Weidtkamp-Peters, S., Rahn, H.-P., Cardoso, M. C. and Hemmerich, P. (2006). Replication of centromeric heterochromatin in mouse fibroblasts takes place in early, middle, and late S phase. Histochem Cell Biol 125: 91-102.

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Brero, A., Easwaran, H. P., Nowak, D., Grunewald, I., Cremer, T., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2005). Methyl CpG-binding proteins induce large-scale chromatin reorganization during terminal differentiation. J Cell Biol 169: 733-743.

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Easwaran, H. P., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2005). Cell cycle markers for live cell analyses. Cell Cycle 4: 453-455.


Grohmann, M., Spada, F., Schermelleh, L., Alenina, N., Bader, M., Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (2005). Restricted mobility of Dnmt1 in preimplantation embryos: implications for epigenetic reprogramming. BMC Dev Biol 5: 18.


Grünwald, D., Cardoso, M. C., Leonhardt, H. and Buschmann, V. (2005). Diffusion and binding properties investigated by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS). Curr Pharm Biotechnol 6: 381-386.


Jambor De Sousa, U. L., Kossa, M. D., Fillies, M., Gahl, A., Scheeder, M. R., Cardoso, M. C., Leonhardt, H., Geary, N., Langhans, W. and Leonhardt, M. (2005). CPT1α over-expression increases long-chain fatty acid oxidation and reduces cell viability with incremental palmitic acid concentration in 293T cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 338: 757-761.


Martin, R. M., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2005). DNA labeling in living cells. Cytometry A 67: 45-52.


Mortusewicz, O., Schermelleh, L., Walter, J., Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (2005). Recruitment of DNA methyltransferase I to DNA repair sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102: 8905-8909.


Schermelleh, L., Spada, F., Easwaran, H. P., Zolghadr, K., Margot, J. B., Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (2005). Trapped in action: direct visualization of DNA methyltransferase activity in living cells. Nat Methods 2: 751-756.


Sporbert, A., Domaing, P., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2005). PCNA acts as a stationary loading platform for transiently interacting Okazaki fragment maturation proteins. Nucleic Acids Res 33: 3521-3528.



Angus, S. P., Mayhew, C. N., Solomon, D. A., Braden, W. A., Markey, M. P., Okuno, Y., Cardoso, M. C., Gilbert, D. M. and Knudsen, E. S. (2004). RB reversibly inhibits DNA replication via two temporally distinct mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol 24: 5404-5420.


Cardoso, M. C. (2004). A look at genome duplication in living cells and the development of cell cycle markers. Zellbiologie aktuell 2: 10-11.


Easwaran, H. P., Schermelleh, L., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2004). Replication-independent chromatin loading of Dnmt1 during G2 and M phases. EMBO Rep 5: 1181-1186.


Sadoni, N., Cardoso, M. C., Stelzer, E. H., Leonhardt, H. and Zink, D. (2004). Stable chromosomal units determine the spatial and temporal organization of DNA replication. J Cell Sci 117: 5353-5365.


Solomon, D. A., Cardoso, M. C. and Knudsen, E. S. (2004). Dynamic targeting of the replication machinery to sites of DNA damage. J Cell Biol 166: 455-463.



Cardoso, M. C. (2003). Law and Order in the Nucleus. Zellbiologie aktuell 29: 8-10.


Choi, M., Rolle, S., Wellner, M., Cardoso, M. C., Scheidereit, C., Luft, F. C. and Kettritz, R. (2003). Inhibition of NF-kappaB by a TAT-NEMO-binding domain peptide accelerates constitutive apoptosis and abrogates LPS-delayed neutrophil apoptosis. Blood 102: 2259-2267.



Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (2002). Protein transduction: a novel tool for tissue regeneration. Biol Chem 383: 1593-1599.


Derer, W., Easwaran, H. P., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2002). A novel approach to induce cell cycle reentry in terminally differentiated muscle cells. FASEB J 16: 132-133.


Quensel, C., Krämer, J., Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (2002). Smoothelin contains a novel actin cytoskeleton localization sequence with similarity to troponin T. J Cell Biochem 85: 403-409.


Sporbert, A., Gahl, A., Ankerhold, R., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2002). DNA polymerase clamp shows little turnover at established replication sites but sequential de novo assembly at adjacent origin clusters. Mol Cell 10: 1355-1365.



Kramer, J., Quensel, C., Meding, J., Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (2001). Identification and characterization of novel smoothelin isoforms in vascular smooth muscle. J Vasc Res 38: 120-132.


Margot, J. B., Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (2001). Mammalian DNA methyltransferases show different subnuclear distributions. J Cell Biochem 83: 373-379.



Aguirre-Arteta, A. M., Grunewald, I., Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (2000). Expression of an alternative Dnmt1 isoform during muscle differentiation. Cell Growth Differ 11: 551-559.


Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (2000). DNA methylation, nuclear structure, gene expression and cancer. J Cell Biochem Suppl Suppl 35: 78-83.


Leonhardt, H., Rahn, H.-P., Weinzierl, P., Sporbert, A., Cremer, T., Zink, D. and Cardoso, M. C. (2000). Dynamics of DNA replication factories in living cells. J Cell Biol 149: 271-280.


Leonhardt, H., Sporbert, A. and Cardoso, M. C. (2000). Targeting regulatory factors to intranuclear replication sites. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 10: 127-133.


Margot, J. B.#, Aguirre-Arteta, A. M.#, Di Giacco, B. V., Pradhan, S., Roberts, R. J., Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (2000). Structure and function of the mouse DNA methyltransferase gene: Dnmt1 shows a tripartite structure. J Mol Biol 297: 293-300.

# First Authors



Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (1999). Differentiation, development and programmed cell death. In The Molecular Basis of Cell Cycle and Growth control, G. Stein, R. Baserga, D. Denhardt, and A. Giordano, (New York: John Wiley & Sons): 305-347.


Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (1999). DNA methyltransferase is actively retained in the cytoplasm during early development. J Cell Biol 147: 25-32.


Cardoso, M. C., Sporbert, A. and Leonhardt, H. (1999). Structure and function in the nucleus: subnuclear trafficking of DNA replication factors. J Cell Biochem Suppl 32-33: 15-23.


Derer, W., Easwaran, H. P., Knopf, C. W., Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (1999). Direct protein transfer to terminally differentiated muscle cells. J Mol Med 77: 609-613.


Engel, F. B., Hauck, L., Cardoso, M. C., Leonhardt, H., Dietz, R. and Von Harsdorf, R. (1999). A mammalian myocardial cell-free system to study cell cycle reentry in terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes. Circ Res 85: 294-301.


Kramer, J., Aguirre-Arteta, A. M., Thiel, C., Gross, C. M., Dietz, R., Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (1999). A novel isoform of the smooth muscle cell differentiation marker smoothelin. J Mol Med 77: 294-298.


Lee-Kirsch, M. A., Gaudet, F., Cardoso, M. C. and Lindpaintner, K. (1999). Distinct renin isoforms generated by tissue-specific transcription initiation and alternative splicing. Circ Res 84: 240-246.


Leonhardt, H., Rahn, H.-P. and Cardoso, M. C. (1999). Functional links between nuclear structure, gene expression, DNA replication, and methylation. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 9: 345-351.


Von Harsdorf, R., Hauck, L., Mehrhof, F., Wegenka, U., Cardoso, M. C. and Dietz, R. (1999). E2F-1 overexpression in cardiomyocytes induces downregulation of p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 and release of active cyclin-dependent kinases in the presence of insulin-like growth factor I. Circ Res 85: 128-136.


Cardoso, M. C. and Leonhardt, H. (1998). Protein targeting to subnuclear higher order structures: a new level of regulation and coordination of nuclear processes. J Cell Biochem 70: 222-230.


Leonhardt, H., Rahn, H.-P. and Cardoso, M. C. (1998). Intranuclear targeting of DNA replication factors. J Cell Biochem Suppl 30-31: 243-249.


Cardoso, M. C., Joseph, C., Rahn, H.-P., Reusch, R., Nadal-Ginard, B. and Leonhardt, H. (1997). Mapping and use of a sequence that targets DNA ligase I to sites of DNA replication in vivo. J Cell Biol 139: 579-587.


Cardoso, M.C., and Leonhard, H. (1995). Immunofluorescence techniques in cell cycle studies. In Cell Cycle: Materials and Methods, M. Pagano, ed. (Heidelberg: Springer Verlag), pp. 15-28.


Leonhardt, H. and Cardoso, M. C. (1995). Targeting and association of proteins with functional domains in the nucleus: the insoluble solution. In Structural and Functional Organization of the Nuclear Matrix. Int Rev Cytol 162B: 303-335.


Cardoso, M. C., Leonhardt, H. and Nadal-Ginard, B. (1993). Reversal of terminal differentiation and control of DNA replication: cyclin A and cdk2 specifically localize at subnuclear sites of DNA replication. Cell 74: 979-992.


Mcdermott, J. C., Cardoso, M. C., Yu, Y. T., Andres, V., Leifer, D., Krainc, D., Lipton, S. A. and Nadal-Ginard, B. (1993). hMEF2C gene encodes skeletal muscle- and brain-specific transcription factors. Mol Cell Biol 13: 2564-2577.


Cardoso Lab  •  Technische Universität Darmstadt  •  Germany


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